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上海翻译公司译员如何提高自己英语翻译能力?

   从事英语翻译工作没有过硬的翻译能力是不行的。那么上海翻译公司的译员如何提高自己的英语翻译能力,提高英语翻译能力主要涉及以下几个方面:

  It is impossible to engage in English translation without good translation ability. Then how to improve their English translation ability and improve their English translation ability mainly involves the following aspects:

  一、翻译的过程

  I. The Process of Translation

  翻译的过程可以分为三个步骤:

  The process of translation can be divided into three steps:

  (1)阅读并分析原文;

  (1) Reading and analyzing the original text;

  (2)将原文转换成译入语;

  (2) Translating the original text into the target language;

  (3)对原文进行修订。

  (3) Revising the original text。

  译者则不但要了解原文的内容,还必须分析原文的内容是如何表达的。

  The translator should not only understand the content of the original text, but also analyze how the content of the original text is expressed。

  这是将原文转换成译入语前必不可少的准备工作。对原文分析得越透彻,准备工作做得越充分,翻译起来就越顺,越容易译出比较忠实原文的译文来。这种认真的工作态度也是对翻译的作者的一个基本要求。

  This is an indispensable preparation before translating the original text into the target language。 The more thorough the analysis and preparation of the original text, the smoother the translation will be, and the easier it will be to translate the more faithful version of the original text。 This earnest working attitude is also a basic requirement for translators。

  如果拿到原文,不待看完就勿忙动笔,结果往往译到最后,还没弄清原文到底讲了些什么。这种工作态度是万万要不得的。

  If you get the original text, don't start writing until you finish reading it. The result is often translated to the end, and you haven't got a clear idea of what the original is talking about. This attitude to work is absolutely undesirable.

  普通读者在阅读时往往可以“不求甚解”,只需弄清大意即可;而译者则必须彻底弄清每句句子、每个词、甚至每个音的意义,并找到它们之间的联系,对整个语篇的有机构成做到胸有成竹。

  Ordinary readers can often read without understanding, just to understand the main idea; while the translator must thoroughly understand the meaning of each sentence, word, or even sound, and find out the relationship between them, so as to have a thorough understanding of the organization of the whole text。

  这好比临画,普通的观画者,只看画上画了些什么,画得像不像;而临画者则必须“看懂”原画上的每一根线条,每一种色彩,以及它们是怎样有机地结合起来表达画的意境的。有些文本的翻译(如文学翻译)也是如此。

  It's like facing painting. Ordinary viewers only look at what is painted on the painting and don't look like it; while facing painters must "understand" every line, every color in the original painting and how they are organically combined to express the artistic conception of the painting. The same is true of the translation of some texts, such as literary translation.

  有些译文与原文貌合神离,其部分原因就是没有吃透原文。也就是说,没有成功地解读原文。这就好比有些临摩画,虽然看上去很“像”原画,但是意境却相去甚远。

  Some translations are in harmony with the original, partly because they fail to understand the original. That is to say, the original text has not been interpreted successfully. This is like some Linmo paintings, although they look very "like" the original painting, but the mood is far from the same.

  二、表达翻译的4个层次

  Four Levels of Expressive Translation

  在阅读和分析原文以后,关键的问题就是如何忠实地表达原文的意思了。按照英国翻译理论家纽马克的观点,在表达的过程中,译者必须在四个层次上对原文和译文负责。

  After reading and analyzing the original text, the key problem is how to express the meaning of the original faithfully。 According to Newmark, a British translation theorist, in the process of expression, the translator must be responsible for the source text and the translation at four levels。

  即文本层次,所指层次,粘着层次和自然层次。

  That is, text level, referential level, cohesive level and natural level.

  文本层次指原文的字面意义。这是译者首先关注的层次,因为任何翻译都不能离开原文。

  Text hierarchy refers to the literal meaning of the original text。 This is the first level of concern of the translator, because no translation can leave the original text。

  人们常说,同一个意思,可以有几种不同的表达方法,这里所说的“表达方法”指的就是字面意义。这种说法固然有一定的道理,但是我们还应该看到原文作者之所以用这种而不是那种表达方法来表示某种意思,是有一定道理的。

  It is often said that the same meaning can be expressed in several different ways。 The "expression method" here refers to the literal meaning。 Although there is some truth in this statement, we should also see that it is reasonable for the author of the original text to express a certain meaning in this way rather than in that way。

  换句话说,这两种表达方法还是有一定区别的。例如,我们前面提到过的,同一句话,用主动语态还是被动语态。直接引语还是间接引语,有时候差别是很大的。词汇的选择也是如此。在英语和汉语中,大多数词汇都有同义词或近义词。

  In other words, there are some differences between the two expressions. For example, as we mentioned earlier, in the same sentence, use the active voice or the passive voice. Direct or indirect speech, sometimes the difference is very big. The same is true of vocabulary choice. In English and Chinese, most words have synonyms or synonyms.

  在一定的语境中,原文作者最后采纳的那个词,和它的同义词也肯定是有区别的。因此,我们在翻译时,不妨想一想:原文作者为什么用某种结构或某个特定的词而没有用其他相近的结构或词?这对理解和表达都是非常重要的。要忠实原文,既不能把原文作者没有说的或不想说的说出来,也不能把原文中的结构或词汇随便用相近的结构或同义词换掉。不然的话,只抓住原文的大意,便信马由缰,难免会离题太远。

  In a certain context, the last word adopted by the author of the original text is certainly different from its synonyms. Therefore, when translating, we may consider why the author of the original text uses a certain structure or a particular word instead of other similar structures or words. This is very important for understanding and expression. To be faithful to the original text, we should neither say what the author did not say or did not want to say, nor replace the structure or vocabulary of the original text with similar structures or synonyms. Otherwise, if we only grasp the main idea of the original text, we will believe that it is too far away from the topic.

  三、译文的连贯与衔接

  Coherence and cohesion in Translation

  译文的连贯性指在段落和语篇的层面上对原文的忠实。

  Coherence in translation refers to faithfulness to the source text at the level of paragraphs and texts。

  有些译文看上去每句句子都是正确的,但是它们放在一起却不堪卒读,就像一幅人像画,眼睛、鼻子、嘴巴和耳朵分别都画得还差强人意,但是拼在一起,却怎么看怎么别扭,不像是一个人的脸。

  Some translations seem to be correct in every sentence, but they can't be read together. Like a portrait, the eyes, nose, mouth and ears are not well painted, but when they are put together, they don't look like a person's face.

  这里,除了可能比例不对和风格不一致等因素以外,还有一个重要原因,那就是五官之间的“衔接”不协调。在翻译中也存在着同样的问题。英汉两种语言在语法、尤其是词序上,有着很大的差别。翻译时如果紧扣原文的词序,整个语篇就可能被“扭曲”。

  Here, in addition to factors such as possible proportion and style inconsistency, there is also an important reason, that is, the "cohesion" between the five senses is not coordinated. The same problem also exists in translation. English and Chinese differ greatly in grammar, especially in word order. If the word order of the original text is closely followed in translation, the whole text may be "distorted".

  另外,英汉语句子的长短和标点规则也很不一致。英语的句子有时可能很长,从句很多,译成汉语时需要在适当的地方断句并作必要的调整。汉语的句子通常较短,译成英语时有时需要并句。

  In addition, the length and punctuation rules of English and Chinese sentences are also inconsistent. English sentences can sometimes be very long, with many clauses. When translated into Chinese, it is necessary to break sentences in appropriate places and make necessary adjustments. Chinese sentences are usually short, and sometimes they need to be translated into English.

  有时作者标点很马虎,往往一逗到底,一个段落只有一句句子。这时译者又必须根据实际情况断句。还有很重要的一点,英语和汉语的句子在主语或主题的选择上也有不同的要求……

  Sometimes the author's punctuation is very sloppy, often a tease to the end, a paragraph has only one sentence. At this time, the translator must make sentences according to the actual situation. It is also very important to note that English and Chinese sentences have different requirements on the choice of subject or theme.

  总之,译文要通畅,必须在充分考虑到两种语言的语篇差别的基础上,仔细地“衔接”好每一句句子,使之成为一个连贯的整体,仿佛用一根无形的丝线,把一颗颗珍珠串起来,成为一串美丽的项链。

  In a word, in order to make the translation smooth, we must carefully "link up" each sentence on the basis of fully considering the textual differences between the two languages so as to make it a coherent whole, like string pearls together with an invisible silk thread to form a beautiful necklace.

  四、译文的自然流畅

  IV. Natural Fluency of Translation

  对所有类型的文本来说,都有一条基本的翻译标准,那就是,译文必须自然流畅,符合译入语的习惯。只有极少数例外的情况,如原文作者或译者为了达到某种特殊的目的,故意把原文或译文写得不通字不顺。那是另外一回事。

  For all types of texts, there is a basic translation criterion, that is, translation.The text must be natural and fluent, in line with the habits of the target language. There are only a few exceptions, such as the author or translator who intentionally writes the original or the translation out of order in order to achieve a particular purpose. That's another matter.

  初学翻译的人常常可能译出谈来很别扭的译文,这其中的原因,除了本身文字功底尚欠火候之外,主要是过于拘泥原文,不敢越“雷池”半步。唯恐被人说不忠实于原文。

  Beginners of translation often translate very awkward translations. The reason for this is that, apart from their lack of literary skills, they are too rigid in the original text and dare not go beyond the "Leichi" half step. For fear of being said to be unfaithful to the original text.

  五、校 改

  V. School Reform

  校改是翻译过程中的最后一道工序,也是必不可少的一个环节。校改不是把译文粗粗地看一遍,改掉几个剌眼的错误,而是一个对译文进行仔细较对和润饰的过程。一件精美的艺术品一定是精雕细琢的产物。一篇堪称艺术品的译文也是如此。一篇初稿,就如同一件毛坯。

  Correction is the last and indispensable step in the process of translation. Correction is not a rough look at the translation to correct some eye-catching mistakes, but a process of careful comparison and polishing of the translation. A fine work of art must be a product of fine craftsmanship. The same is true of a translation of a work of art. A first draft is like a blank.

  总有许多不尽如人意之处,有些甚至可能是严重的错误,弄得不好还可能造成不可估量的后果。因此,译者必须认真对待这一环节。有人做过粗略的估计,在整个翻译的过程中,校改花去的时间要占70%。其重要性可见一斑。

  There are always many unsatisfactory aspects, some of which may even be serious mistakes, which may lead to incalculable consequences. Therefore, translators must take this link seriously. Some people have made a rough estimate that 70% of the time spent on proofreading is spent in the whole process of translation. Its importance is evident.

  校改首先是校对。校对主要有两个目的,一是补漏,即看看译文中有无遗漏之处:二是看看译文中有无明显的错误,如数据、年代、人名、地名,以及其他由于疏忽导致的“低级”错误。

  Proofreading is the first step in proofreading。 There are two main purposes of proofreading: one is to make up for the omissions, that is, to see if there are any omissions in the translation; the other is to see if there are any obvious errors in the translation, such as data, age, person names, place names, and other "low-level" errors caused by negligence。

  修改润饰的目的是去掉初稿中的斧凿痕迹,即原文的目的语的影响或干扰,使译文自然流畅,更符合目的语的习惯。通常的做法是先抛开原文,以地道的目的语的标准去检查和衡量译文,并进行修改和润饰。改完以后再与原文核对一下,以免“自由发挥”之嫌。

  The purpose of modification and embellishment is to remove the chisel marks in the original draft, that is, the influence or interference of the target language of the original text, so as to make the translation natural and smooth, and more in line with the habits of the target language. The usual practice is to first put aside the original text and check and measure the translation according to the authentic target language standard, and then revise and polish it. Check with the original text after correcting, so as to avoid suspicion of "free play".

  以上就是上海翻译公司为大家分享的有关上海翻译公司译员如何提高自己英语翻译能力的内容,希望对大家有所帮助。如果大家有更多关于上海翻译公司的内容,请及时的与我们进行联系。

  This is what Shanghai Translation Company shares with you about how the translators of Shanghai Translation Company can improve their English translation ability。 I hope it will be helpful to you all。 If you have more information about Shanghai Translation Company, please contact us in time。

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